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EFM Resource Articles

  1. Bakker J, et al. Outcomes after Internal versus External Tocodynamometry for Monitoring Labor. New England Journal of Medicine, 2010; 362:306-313.
  2. Request this bulletin: ACOG Practice Bulletin, Clinical management guidelines for obstetrician-gynecologists. Antepartum fetal surveillance. Number 9, October 1999 (replaces Technical Bulletin Number 188, January 1994).
  3. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 106: Intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring: nomenclature, interpretation, and general management principles. Obstetrics And Gynecology, 2009 Jul; Vol. 114 (1), pp. 192-202.
  4. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 116: Management of Intrapartum Fetal Heart Rate Tracings. Obstetrics And Gynecology, 2010 Nov; Vol. 116 (5), pp. 1232-40.
  5. Bakker PC, Kurver PH, Kuik DJ, Van Geijn HP. Elevated uterine activity increases the risk of fetal acidosis at birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Apr;196(4):313.e1-6.
  6. Neilson DR Jr, Freeman RK, Mangan S. Signal ambiguity resulting in unexpected outcome with external fetal heart rate monitoring. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jun;198(6):717-24.
  7. Graham EM, Ruis KA, Hartman AL, Northington FJ, Fox HE. A systematic review of the role of intrapartum hypoxia-ischemia in the causation of neonatal encephalopathy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Dec;199(6):587-95.
  8. Simpson KR. Intrauterine resuscitation during labor: Review of current methods and supportive evidence. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2007 May-Jun;52(3):229-37.
  9. Fahey J, King TL. Intrauterine asphyxia: clinical implications for providers of intrapartum care. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2005 Nov-Dec;50(6):498-506.
  10. Simpson KR. Monitoring the preterm fetus during labor. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2004 Nov-Dec;29(6):380-8; quiz 389-90.
  11. Macones GA, Hankins GD, Spong CY, Hauth J, Moore T. The 2008 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Workshop Report on Electronic Fetal Monitoring: Update on Definitions, Interpretation, and Research Guidelines. Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Sep;112(3):661-6.
  12. NCC: Certificate of Added Qualification in Electronic Fetal Monitoring (C-EFM).
  13. National Certification Corporation. NICHD Definitions and Classifications: Application to Electronic Fetal Monitoring Interpretation. NCC Monograph, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2010.
  14. Signore C, Freeman RK, Spong CY. Antenatal Testing—A Reevaluation: Executive Summary of a Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Workshop. Obstet Gynecol, Volume 113(3), March 2009, pp 687-701.
  15. Simpson KR. Intrauterine resuscitation during labor: Should maternal oxygen administration be a first-line measure? Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, Volume 13, Issue 6, December 2008, pp 362-367.
  16. Kirkpatrick DH, Burkman RT. Does Standardization of Care Through Clinical Guidelines Improve Outcomes and Reduce Medical Liability? Obstet Gynecol, Volume 116(5), November 2010, pp 1022-1026.
  17. Susan Martin Tucker, Lisa A. Miller, David A. Miller, Mosby's Pocket Guide to Fetal Monitoring: A Multidisciplinary Approach, © 2009.